The big and beautiful spiral galaxy M81, in the northern constellation Ursa Major, is one of the brightest galaxies visible in the skies of planet Earth. This superbly detailed view reveals its bright nucleus, grand spiral arms and sweeping cosmic dust lanes with a scale comparable to the Milky Way. Hinting at a disorderly past, a remarkable dust lane runs straight through the disk, below and right of the galactic center, contrary to M81's other prominent spiral features. The errant dust lane may be the lingering result of a close encounter between M81 and its smaller companion galaxy, M82. Scrutiny of variable stars in M81 (aka NGC 3031) has yielded one of the best determined distances for an external galaxy -- 11.8 million light-years.
A barred spiral galaxy located some 30 million light years away toward theconstellation Horologium, Galaxy NGC 1512 is bright enough to be seen with amateur telescopes. The galaxy is some 70,000 light years across. Galaxy "starbursts" are episodes of vigorous formation of new stars and are found in various galaxy environments. across, which is nearly as large as our own Milky Way galaxy. The core of the galaxy is remarkable for its "circumnuclear" starburst ring, which is an amazing circle of young star clusters that spans some 2400